Natural Disasters

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Week 2: Different typs of Natural Disasters

click on any of the Natural disasters to find out more infomation
  • Floods- an overflow of a large amount of water
  • Volcanos- allows hot magma ad ash to escape from below the surfuse
  • Tsunamies- series of water caused by the displacement of a large amount of water
  • Heat-waves- a long period of extremly hot weather
  • Lightning- a discharge of electricity accompanied by thunder
  • Fires- achemical prosess releasing heat and light
  • Cyclon- a area of closed circular fluid motion rotating in the same
  • Earthquake- a result of a sudden release of energy in the earths surfuse

Wow look at this video!!! just click here to see it

Week 4: What do we use to clarify disasters & how are they measured?

Predicting the size, location, and timing of natural hazards is almost impossible, but now, earth scientists are able to forecast hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and landslides using fractals. A fractal is a mathematical formula of a pattern that repeats over a wide range of size and time scales

Week 5: what are the layers of the earths

The earth consists of several layers. The three main layers are the core, the mantle and the crust. The core is the inner part of the earth, the crust is the outer part and between them is the mantle. The earth is surrounded by the atmosphere. Till this moment it hasn't been possible to take a look inside the earth because the current technology doesn't allow it. Therefore all kinds of research had to be done to find out, out of which material the earth consists, what different layers there are and which influence those have (had) on the earth's surface. This research is called seismology.

The Core
The inner part of the earth is the core. This part of the earth is about 1,800 miles below the earth's surface. It is divided into two layers, the inner core and the outer core. The inner core - the center of earth - is solid and about 780 miles thick. The outer core is about 1370 miles thick. Because the earth rotates, the outer core spins around the inner core and that causes the earth's magnetism.

The Mantel
The layer above the core is the mantle. It begins about 6 miles(10 km) below the oceanic crust and about 19 miles(30 km) below the continental crust (see The Crust). The mantle is to divide into the inner mantle and the outer mantle. It is about 1,800 miles(2,900 km) thick and makes up nearly 80 percent of the Earth's total volume.

The Crust
The crust lays above the mantle and is the earth's hard outer shell, the surface on which we are living. In relation with the other layers the crust is much thinner. It floats upon the softer, denser mantle. The crust is made up of solid material but these material is not everywhere the same. There is an Oceanic crust and a Continental crust. The first one is about 4-7 miles (6-11 km) thick and consists of heavy rocks, like basalt. The Continental crust is thicker than the Oceanic crust, about 19 miles(30 km) thick. It is mainly made up of light material, like granite.

Week 6: What are the different atmospheric layers above us?

Atmosphere is the gases surrounding the earth, held in place by gravity. It is a collection of four distinct layers, and several intermediate layers. These layers start at ground level, measured at sea level, and rise into what we call outer space.

The Troposphere

Troposphere means, ‘where the air turns over’. the air closest to the earth is in a constant up and down flow. Also in this layer, the air is hotter closer to the earth’s surface and colder the higher up you travel. Starting at sea level, the troposphere goes up seven miles. The bottom one third, that which is closest to us, contains 50% of all atmospheric gases. This is the only area where all weather takes place. The air from the northern hemisphere and the air from the southern hemisphere meet and mingle at the equator, but never go farther. Next, is a thin layer called the tropopause, which is just a buffer between the troposphere and the stratosphere.

The Stratosphere

The stratosphere is the next layer of the atmosphere. Here the air doesn’t flow up and down, but flows parallel to the earth in very fast moving air streams. This is the layer where most jet planes fly. The stratosphere starts at approximately 10 kilometers (8-14.5 miles) and goes to approximately fifty kilometers high (about 30 miles). The top edge of the stratosphere is abundant with ozone. Ozone is the byproduct of sun radiation and oxygen; by capturing the ultraviolet rays of the sun and deploying it, ozone takes out the harmful effects. This is very important to all living things on earth, since unfiltered radiation from the sun can destroy all animal tissue. After the stratosphere, there is again a buffer layer, this time called the stratopause.

The Mesosphere Above this from thirty miles up to fifty miles is the mesosphere. This area reaches the coldest temperatures of all the atmosphere, going to -130 degrees and lower. Here, meteors coming too close to earth burn up.

The Thermosphere

The last layer of the atmosphere called the thermosphere, and measured at fifty to ninety miles above earth, contains less than 0.01% of all air within the atmospheric envelope. Temperatures here reach upward to 2000 degrees, but the gas molecules making up the air are so far apart the temperature is not felt.

The Ionosphere

The very outer edge of the thermosphere is an area called the ionosphere and is not a separate layer. Gas atoms drift into space from here. It is called ionosphere because in this part of the atmosphere the sun’s radiation is ionized, or pulled apart as it travels earth’s magnetic fields to the north and south poles.
Without the ninety plus miles of atmosphere above us, the closest two plus miles where all our weather takes place would not be possible. Our atmosphere swirls around the earth and the weather closest to the surface has its overall effective place within it.

week 7: what is in our solar system that effect us

Our solar system consists of an average star we call the Sun, the Our solar system consists of an average star we call the Sun, the Our solar system consists of an average star we call the Sun, the Our solar system consists of an average star we call the Sun and some planets like mercury, venus, Earth, mars, jupiter, saturne, neptune, and pluto. The Sun is the richest source of electromagnetic energy (mostly in the form of heat and light) in the solar system.


Week 8: how do humans effect Nature

Global Warming
Rivers have played an important role in the survival of mankind, and many of them are fed by glaciers. Global Warming refers to the increase in the temperatures of the earth due to release of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane from industries and vehicles. This phenomenon is causing the glaciers to melt at an alarming rate. Not just the Gangotri, but even the polar ice caps are melting at a faster rate than they can form. The result is increase in the sea level, and it poses a danger of drowning the low lying areas. Some of the areas that may go under the sea if the sea levels kept increasing include Bangladesh, parts of Africa and even major cities like London and New York!

Ozone Layer

Even minor problems of ozone depletion can have major effects. Every time even a small amount of the ozone layer is lost, more ultraviolet light from the sun can reach the Earth. Every time 1% of the ozone layer is depleted, 2% more UV-B is able to reach the surface of the planet. UV-B increase is one of the most harmful consequences of ozone depletion because it can cause skin cancer. man made chemicals are released in the atmosphere, the rise up and breake down the Ozone molecules that form the ozone layer.

The industries release gallons of liquid waste into the seas and rivers. Some of the waste go down to reach the ground water and pollute it to the so it can't be used by human beings for drinking or cooking. humans cause polution by using vechils like cars, and factories which produce gases that harm the enviroment[[laura Stevens#|l]]
Expanding population, industrialization and need of land for development of expanding cities has led man to cut down forests selfishly. Not only are the forests home to a large number of animals, trees are also an important component of the water cycle. The global forest cover has shrunk to half its area in the last 11,000 years. During the period between 1990 and 2000 itself, the yearly loss of natural forests 16 million hectares